Analysis of nanosciences and nanotechnology and their applications
The small world of matter is getting smaller and smaller. Nano sciences in recent years had huge developments allowing nanotechnologies to take enormous steps in the development of materials and processes. Numerous applications in a wide scope of fields are very beneficial for humans, and many researches in development are very promising. Applications in medicine, industry, electronics, energy, or aeronautics are only some examples of areas where enormous benefits exist, and potentialities are clear. Some nanotechnologies are already applied and others are in development or testing phases.
Keywords: Nanoscience, Nanotechnology, nanoscale, processes, medicine, industry, energy, devices
José António Filipe, Manuel Alberto M. Ferreira. Analysis of nanosciences and nanotechnology and their applications. Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, 8(2); 2022, 5-27.
Gaps between nursing education – to – nursing practice: The needed change now
The gap between nursing education and nursing practice keeps widening in the era of online education for nursing students. The current new graduates coming to the floor lack fundamental skills to thrive in this stressful environment. They are equipped with the science of nursing but are deprived of the art of nursing. They do not understand the essential practices of nursing. This is a significant challenge, and to solve this problem, there should be a bridge to reduce this widening gap between nursing education and nursing practice. The solutions are numerous, but competency-based education, rigorous preceptorship, and practice internships can clot this bleeding of unequipped new graduates.
Keywords: Competency-based education, internship to practice, preceptorship, nursing practice, nursing education, structural, interactionist
Kwadwo Awuah-Baffour. Gaps between nursing education – to – nursing practice: The needed change now. Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, 8(2); 2022, 28-34.
Clinical applications of carbamylated hemoglobin in renal diseases
Carbamylated hemoglobin is formed by reaction of isocyanate (urea dissociation product) with valine residues of Hb chains. Different studies demonstrated that carbamylated hemoglobin level is increased in patients with renal impairment. This study concluded that carbamylated hemoglobin level significantly correlates with serum creatinine (r=0.411, moderate positive) and urea level (r=0.408, moderate positive) (p<0.001). This correlation may be important in clinical settings makes carbamylated hemoglobin good biomarker for renal impairment, and may reflect severity and duration of renal impairment. We also found that carbamylated hemoglobin level is not affected by the diabetes state of the patient.
Keywords: Carbamylated hemoglobin, urea dissociation products, renal impairment, kidney biomarkers
Mohamed Abdel-Hady Mashahit, Shahira Morsy El-Shafeey, Hala Sayed El-Toukhy, Ragab Adly Ali, Hossam M. Abdel Aziz, Mahmoud Gamal Ali. Clinical applications of carbamylated hemoglobin in renal diseases. Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, 8(2); 2022, 53-59.
Urinary immunoglobulin G as A parameter for early detection of chronic kidney disease in patients with metabolic syndrome
Background and aim: Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are silent major global health issues and are major risk factors of cardiovascular and all cause death. Patients with MetS are at a significantly higher risk for CKD. Urinary IgG is an important marker protein for early glomerular damage and increased urinary IgG levels was found to be useful predictor of diabetic kidney disease in normoalbuminuric patients. We aimed to assess urinary immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels as a predictor of early CKD in subjects with MetS.
Methods: A cross-sectional study with 81 adult individuals were enrolled. All participants were divided into 2 groups: with MetS (56 in MetS group) and without MetS (25 in non-MetS group), with MetS being identified using the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Patients with known CKD, DM, neoplasm, infection or autoimmune diseases and pregnant women were excluded. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical measures including urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), serum fasting plasma glucose, creatinine, lipid profiles, Haemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma Insulin were performed for all participants. IgG concentrations were measured by using human enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and correlated these levels with urinary ACR and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). CKD was identified by albuminuria and estimating GFR using the CKD-EPI equation. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the chances of elevated urinary IgG levels associated with MetS and its components.
Results: Showed that as compared with the non-MetS group, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of elevated urinary IgG levels were 7.7 in MetS group. Unadjusted analysis showed that the ORs of elevated urinary IgG levels were associated with elevated waist circumference, hypertension, elevated FBG and reduced HDL-c but not with elevated TG. In the adjusted model, ORs of elevated urinary IgG levels were 19.16 (OR: 19.16; 95% CI: 4.40-83.5, P<0.001) for elevated waist circumference, 3.53 (OR: 3.53; 95% CI: 1.03-12.2, P<0.05) for low HDL-c. TG/ HDL-c ratio, urinary ACR and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in the MetS group than in the non-MetS group (all P<0.05). Elevated urinary IgG levels was significantly correlating with urinary ACR (P<0.019) and showed statistically high significant negative correlation with absolute values eGFR.
Conclusion: It is suggested that elevated urinary IgG levels could be a predicting biomarker for CKD in MetS normoalbuminuric subjects. From MetS components, mainly abdominal obesity accounted for the greatest strength of association with elevated urinary IgG levels. More attention should be focused on visceral obesity during risk management in order to prevent CKD and further research into the mechanism behind is needed.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, urinary immunoglobulin
Mohamed R. Bahi Elgmmal, Mohamed Abdelhady Mashahet, Hoda Abdel-badie Hussein, Shereen R.M. Kaddafy, Amal M. Maher. Clinical applications of carbamylated hemoglobin in renal diseases. Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, 8(2); 2022, 60-77.